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Passat B2 Syncro (Quantum in the US, Corsar in Mexico, Santana in Brazil)Next

full-time all wheel drive with manually lockable differentials, same as quattro evolution I. See quattro evolutions.

Figure: (157KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-transmission-layout

Figure: (367KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-interior-diff-lock

Figure: (101KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-front-differential

Figure: (106KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-front-drive-shaft

Figure: (111KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-central-differential

Figure: (82KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-propeller-shaft

Figure: (103KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-rear-differential

Figure: (125KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-rear-differential-lock

Figure: (144KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-rear-differential-vacuum-lock-system

Figure: (92KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-rear-drive-shaft

Figure: (75KB)
volkswagen-passat-b2-gearbox

Do you own Volkswagen Passat B2 Syncro (Quantum In The Us, Corsar In Mexico, Santana In Brazil)? Can you please make a photo of the car's 4x4 transmission, switches, dashboard lights, etc. and send it to ?

Golf Mk2 Syncro, Passat B3, B4, Sharan Syncro (1996-2001)Next

viscous coupling automatic all wheel drive system.

A viscous coupling installed instead of a center differential, with freewheel mechanism to disconnect the driven axle when braking. Open rear differential. Open front differential.

In normal conditions, this is a front wheel drive vehicle. In normal driving conditions 95% of torque transferred to front axle. Because viscous coupling is considered to be "slow" (some time is needed for silicone fluid to warm-up and solidify), 5% of torque is transferred to rear axle at all times to "pre-tension" the viscous coupling and reduce activation time. The coupling locks when slipping occurs and up to near 100% of torque is automatically transferred to rear axle. In on-road conditions the car will not move if one front wheel and one rear wheel lose traction.

The freewheel segment, installed inside the rear differential, lets rear wheels rotate faster than front wheels without locking the viscous coupling and preventing ABS from applying brakes to each wheel independently. Because of the freewheel, torque can be transferred to rear axle only when vehicle is moving forward. For all wheel drive to work when reversing, a vacuum-actuated "throttle control element" is installed on the differential case. This device locks the freewheel mechanism when in reverse gear. The freewheel mechanism unlocks when the gear shift lever is pushed to the right pass the 3rd gear. The freewheel is not unlocked immideately after leaving reverse gear on purpose - this is to prevent the freewheel from cycling from locked to unlocked if the car is stuck and driver is trying to rock the car by changing from 1st to reverse and back.

Disadvantages of this all wheel drive system are related to actuation time of the viscous coupling. 1: When cornering under acceleration on a slippery surface, rear axle is engaged with delay causing sudden change in the car's behaviour (from understeer to oversteer). 2: When starting on a sandy surface, front wheels can dig into the sand before all wheel drive is engaged.

Figure: Volkswagen Golf MkII Syncro (87KB)
volkswagen-golf-2-syncro

Figure: Volkswagen Golf MkII Syncro power transfer to the rear axle (99KB)
volkswagen-golf-2-syncro_x

Figure: Volkswagen Golf MkII Syncro rear axle gear unit with visco-clutch, free-wheel unit, and bevel gear differential. (119KB)
volkswagen-golf-2-syncro_xx

Figure: (94KB)
volkswagen-golf-2-syncro_xxx

Figure: Volkswagen Golf Mk2 Syncro freewheeling mechanism(12) (21KB)
volkswagen-syncro-freewheel

Figure: Volkswagen Golf Mk2 Syncro throttle control element(15) (14KB)
volkswagen-syncro-throttle-control

Figure: (470KB)
volkswagen-golf-2-syncro_xxxx

Do you think this information about Volkswagen Golf Mk2 Syncro, Passat B3, B4, Sharan Syncro (1996-2001) is incorrect? Please send us what you know to or leave a comment below.

Passat B5 Syncro (1997-1999) / Passat B5.5 4motion (1999-2005) / PhaetonNext

Torsen-based full-time all wheel drive. See quattro evolutions.

Figure: (631KB)
vw-passat-b5

Do you think this information about Volkswagen Passat B5 Syncro (1997-1999) / Passat B5.5 4Motion (1999-2005) / Phaeton is incomplete? Please send us what you know to or leave a comment below.

Passat B6 4motion (2005-...)Next

Haldex Generation II automatic all wheel drive. Haldex Generation IV automatic all wheel drive since 2007.

Figure: (77KB)
volkswagen-passat-4motion

Figure: (208KB)
volkswagen-passat-4motion-haldex-generation-4

Do you think this information about Volkswagen Passat B6 4Motion (2005-...) is incorrect? Please send us what you know to or leave a comment below.

Golf IV/V/VI 4motion, Bora/Jetta 4motion, Beetle Rsi, Sharan 4motion (1999-...)Next

Haldex Generation I automatic all wheel drive. Haldex Generation II automatic all wheel drive since 2002. Haldex Generation IV automatic all wheel drive since 2007.

Figure: Volkswagen Golf IV 4motion (109KB)
volkswagen-golf-4-4motion_x

Figure: Volkswagen Golf IV 4motion (203KB)
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Figure: Volkswagen Golf IV 4motion (186KB)
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Figure: Volkswagen Golf IV 4motion (188KB)
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Figure: Volkswagen Golf IV 4motion (184KB)
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Figure: Volkswagen Golf IV 4motion (206KB)
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Figure: Volkswagen Golf V 4motion (193KB)
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Figure: Volkswagen Golf V 4motion (115KB)
volkswagen-golf-5-4motion_x

Figure: Volkswagen Golf VI 4motion (69KB)
volkswagen-golf-6-4motion

Do you think this information about Volkswagen Golf Iv/v/vi 4Motion, Bora/jetta 4Motion, Beetle Rsi, Sharan 4Motion (1999-...) is incorrect? Please send us what you know to or leave a comment below.

Golf VII 4motion (2013-...)Next

Haldex Generation V automatic all wheel drive.

Figure: Volkswagen Golf VII 4motion (41KB)
volkswagen-golf-7-4motion

Figure: Volkswagen Golf VII R 4motion (112KB)
volkswagen-golf-7-R-4motion

Do you think this information about Volkswagen Golf Vii 4Motion (2013-...) is incorrect? Please send us what you know to or leave a comment below.

Tiguan 4motion (2007-...)Next

Haldex Generation IV automatic all wheel drive.

Do you think this information about Volkswagen Tiguan 4Motion (2007-...) is incomplete? Please send us what you know to or leave a comment below.

T3 Syncro (1985-1992)Next

Rear wheel drive-based automatic all wheel drive system with torque transfer to the front axle via viscous coupling. Freewheel mechanism(?). Manually locking rear and front differential.

Figure: (182KB)
volkswagen-t3-syncro

Figure: (120KB)
volkswagen-t3-syncro-front-differential

Figure: (89KB)
volkswagen-t3-syncro-front-drive-shaft

Figure: (47KB)
volkswagen-t3-syncro-propeller-shaft

Figure: (64KB)
volkswagen-t3-syncro-viscous-coupling

Figure: (172KB)
volkswagen-t3-syncro-transmission

Figure: (114KB)
volkswagen-t3-syncro-rear-differential

Figure: (95KB)
volkswagen-t3-syncro-rear-drive-shaft

Figure: (172KB)
volkswagen-t3-syncro-transmission

Have you seen a better description of Volkswagen T3 Syncro (1985-1992) on the web? Please send us the link to or post it in a comment below!

T4 SyncroNext

Automatic all wheel drive system with torque transfer to the rear axle via viscous coupling. Freewheel mechanism. Manually locking rear differential.

Figure: (78KB)
volkswagen-t4-syncro

Figure: Volkswagen T4 Syncro propeller shaft (69KB)
volkswagen-t4-syncro-propeller-shaft

Figure: Volkswagen T4 Syncro throttle control element in the rear differential (30KB)
volkswagen-t4-syncro-throttle-control-element

Figure: Volkswagen T4 Syncro viscous coupling (25KB)
volkswagen-t4-syncro-viscous-coupling

Have you seen a better description of Volkswagen T4 Syncro in a paper magazine? Can you please scan it or take a photo and send it to ?

T4 4motionNext

Haldex automatic all wheel drive. Manually locking rear differential.

Do you own Volkswagen T4 4Motion? Can you please make a photo of the car's 4x4 transmission, switches, dashboard lights, etc. and send it to ?

TouaregNext

Full-time all wheel drive. 50/50 torque split under normal conditions. Multiplate clutch lockable center differential. Optional rear lockable differential. Front open differential. Low gear. Differential locks are engaged by ECU, but also can be engaged manually by the driver. The car is also equipped with Hill Descent Control, Hill Start Assist.

Figure: (60KB)
volkswagen-touareg-4motion

Do you own Volkswagen Touareg? Can you please make a photo of the car's 4x4 transmission, switches, dashboard lights, etc. and send it to ?

IltisNext

Part-time all wheel drive. Manually lockable rear differential. Manually lockable front differential.

There is a small lever on the floor between the driver's and passenger's seat located next to the passenger's seat that shifts between 4wd and 2wd. This switching is purely mechanical. When you put the Iltis into 2wd it goes into rear-wheel-drive. Engaging the 4wd lever will engage the front wheels.

Between the driver's and passenger's seat located next to the driver's seat is another small lever which switches the differential lock in and out. The diff lock is on the rear wheels. This switching is purely mechanical. Diff lock is normally left in the out position.

The super low first, which is labelled "G" on the shifter, is only available 4wd.

Source: http://magma.ca/~smaclennan/m38a1/iltis.html

Figure: (130KB)
volkswagen-iltis_x

Figure: (51KB)
volkswagen-iltis

Figure: (117KB)
volkswagen-iltis-4x4-interior-diagram

Figure: (218KB)
volkswagen-iltis-4x4-transmission

Figure: (482KB)
volkswagen-iltis-4x4

Do you think this information about Volkswagen Iltis is incorrect? Please send us what you know to or leave a comment below.

Schwimmwagen type 166Top

Figure: (1118KB)
vw-schwimmwagen-type-166

You have better pictures or videos of Volkswagen Schwimmwagen Type 166 that you can contribute? Please send them to !

There are 4 comments
Rob Barnes
May 17, 2016 - 16:07

How do I get a print of this great illustration.

Thanks Rob

Reply to Rob Barnes
awdwiki.com
May 17, 2016 - 18:13

Which one?

Nathan
February 13, 2015 - 05:25

Touareg II has two different AWD system:
4motion, the same with Q7, Torsen center differential
4Xmotion, Multiplate clutch lockable center differential updated from the first generation, which has more powerful off-road capacity

Alessandro
October 12, 2014 - 06:04

Hello,
I'm Alessandro I've a vwT4 syncro '98 when I insert manually the 4wd system does not turn on the marker lights!
What can be the causes?
Thank you much