full time all wheel drive with viscous coupling locking planetary gear differential.
Figure: Escort RS2000 center differential (103KB)
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Escort RS CosworthNext
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Kuga I (2008 - 2012)Next
Haldex generation III or generation IV proactive automatic all wheel drive.
Figure: Haldex unit generation III (left) and generation IV (right) on Ford Kuga (34KB)
Figure: Ford Kuga Haldex generation III unit (61KB)
Figure: Ford Kuga Haldex generation IV unit (May 2009) (754KB)
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Kuga II (2013 - ...)Next
automatic all wheel drive
Multi-plate clutch pack between the front and rear differentials. In normal conditions, the clutch pack would not be engaged so that only the front wheel would be driven for maximum fuel economy. The all-wheel drive system, however, would continuously monitor traction inputs and, if it determined that rear-wheel drive was needed, engage the clutch to increase torque to the rear axle in a linear fashion up to a 50:50 front:rear torque split.
All-wheel drive Kuga models also had a Torque Vectoring Control function which could apply the brakes to the inside front wheel when cornering to effectively transfer torque to the opposite wheel and thereby reduce understeer.
Source: Australian Car Reviews
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Mondeo I 2.0 4x4 (1994-1996)Next
full time all wheel drive with 58/42% torque split (front/rear) via free (non-lockable) planetary gear differential.
Figure: Ford Mondeo gen. I planetary gear center differential and all wheel drive layout (96KB)
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full-time all wheel drive with viscous coupling locking planetary gear center differential. 37/63 front/rear ratio.
The constant drive was realized as follows. Behind the common 5-speed gearbox, the ZF transfer gearbox with interaxle differential was mounted. Planetary gear set of the interaxle differential distributed the torque in 37/63-front/rear ratio. The differential included viscous coupling with lock-function. To the rear, the transfer gearbox extended in two-section cardan shaft propelling the rear axle with bevel gear differential and axle shafts with CV joints. The rear axle differential included viscous coupling with lock-function for improved traction. Front axle propulsion comes out of the transfer gearbox aside the engine axe. There is a 1:1 chain transmission.
The transfer gearbox is connected to front bevel gear differential using short cardan shaft. The front differential is mounted on crankcase, therefore the propulsion of front left wheel must have been constructed using a shaft leading through crank case. The shaft was split into two parts to ensure smooth and reliable operation. The parts used in this configuration are rather special and therefore expensive.
On all 4WD cars, the most powerful motors were mounted only, at first 2.8 (till 1987, very rare car), then 2.9litr (engine equipped with catalys. has torque - 229 Nm, than 222 Nm, at standart engine). Also You can understand that you have business with 4x4 before 1990, thanks to black windows ornament. Also 4x4 version was produced as GL and as Ghia set. After 1990 only in GL version (not in England). All 4x4 cars was equipped with 5-speed manual gearbox. Main bodyes was: hatch and saloon, but there was also Tournier version, but it's a very rare car, I have met only 1 in my life.
Oh, yes, 4x4 technic was designed by Fergusson, it's very famous firm, and it's helped to Ford with Sierra 4x4 also.
A - rear axle
B - epicycle drive
C - viscomate
D - drive chain in the distributive drive
E - gearbox's band wheel shaft
F - driving shaft to the front axle's distributive drive
G - front axle's distributive drive
H - front axle
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Sierra RS Cosworth / XR4x4Next
Full-time all wheel drive with viscous coupling locking planetary gear center differential. 40% front / 60% rear (35/65% ??) torque distribution under normal conditions.
Figure: Sierra 4x4 layout (101KB)
Figure: Sierra 4x4 front differential (120KB)
Figure: Fergusson type center viscous coupling (5) locking differential (4) (95KB)
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Automatic all wheel drive. Normally rear wheel drive vehicle. When rear wheels slip, torque is transferred to the front wheels via two multi plate clutches, installed in the front axle - one clutch for each of the front wheels. Each clutch incorporates an Eaton-type oil pump.
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