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850 AWD

Automatic all wheel drive, torque transfer to rear axle via viscous coupling when front wheels slip, electronic traction control on front wheels, limited slip rear differential.

Figure: volvo 850 awd (175KB)

Figure: Volvo 850 viscous coupling and disconnect unit (a freewheel) (41KB)

Figure: volvo 850 transmission (788KB)

Have you seen a better description of Volvo 850 Awd in a paper magazine? Can you please scan it or take a photo and send it to ?

S60 AWD (2002)

Haldex Generation I automatic all wheel drive.

Figure: volvo s60r first generation (382KB)

Do you own Volvo S60 Awd (2002)? Can you please make a photo of the car's 4x4 transmission, switches, dashboard lights, etc. and send it to ?

Volvo S60 AWD (2003-...), Volvo V70 AWD (2003-...), Volvo XC 70 (2003-...), Volvo S60R AWD, Volvo V70R AWD

Haldex Generation II automatic all wheel drive.

In the US Volvo S60R and V70R was updated from Haldex II to Haldex III for the 2006 model year.

You have better pictures or videos of Volvo S60 Awd (2003-...), V70 Awd (2003-...), Xc 70 (2003-...), S60R Awd, V70R Awd that you can contribute? Please send them to !

V70 AWD (1997-2002), V70 Cross Country (2000-2002), XC70 (2002)

Automatic all wheel drive, torque transfer to rear axle via viscous coupling when front wheels slip, electronic traction control on front wheels (TRACS - Volvo's brand of traction control). TRACS system works on speeds up to 40kph(25mph).

Have you seen a better description of Volvo V70 Awd (1997-2002), V70 Cross Country (2000-2002), Xc70 (2002) on the web? Please send us the link to or post it in a comment below!

XC 90 (2002-2020)

Haldex Generation II automatic all wheel drive.

Figure: volvo xc90 awd (162KB)

All Volvos have Haldex Gen III since 2006(?)

Figure: volvo s60 (25KB)

Do you think this information about Volvo Xc 90 (2002-2020) is incomplete? Please send us what you know to or leave a comment below.

There are 14 comments
October 28, 2015 - 22:00

What would be wrong if AWD does not engage, especially the rear wheels?

Reply to Sam
February 03, 2021 - 14:21

I don't think my old Volvo's awd is working how do I check?

February 02, 2013 - 22:01

The Volvos really shine in this long video comparing many different AWD and Traction Control systems.


December 21, 2012 - 19:09

Just found out the 1997 AWD 850 (not sold in the US), and the 1998-2000 V70XC have Eaton rear locking differentials. All these models have the VC AWD systems. This locking diff is more effective than the ABS based traction control (with open diffs) on the more recent model Volvos.

Reply to Tostik
January 24, 2016 - 18:47

Which Volvos on the European Market have a diff lock? Do later haldex systems come with lsd? I ve been told that the early volvo awd on 850 awd and v70 system has more power transferred to the back wheels as opposed to later ones, before they switched to haldex.

October 06, 2012 - 00:42

Volvo calls Haldex 3 & 4 Instant Traction, because it will activate the rear wheels with just 15 degrees (1/24th) of a front wheel spin. And it sends 60 ft-lbs of pre-charged torque to the rear wheels instantaneously. This is an improvement over Haldex 2 which will send torque more gradually to the rear wheels after 1/7th (51 degrees) of a front wheel spin.

March 01, 2010 - 20:20
disconnect unit

The 'disconnect' unit is a 'freewheel':

Reply to Joel
March 21, 2010 - 12:01


January 11, 2010 - 00:42
Haldex iterations

In the US, the Volvo S60R (and V70R) was updated from Haldex 2.0 to Haldex 3.0 for the 2006 model year.


Reply to George
October 05, 2012 - 22:02

And the 2006 XC90 went to Haldex 3rd gen also. 4th gen in 2009.

January 08, 2010 - 02:18

Very useful !! Thank you.

September 14, 2009 - 11:12
Opel/ Vauxhall Calibra/Vectra A
February 21, 2009 - 14:01
Mazda 323 GT Turbo 4WD

You forgot the Mazda 323 1.6 GT Turbo 4WD! (and/or 1.8 GTX)

We are again on a full-time AWD System with planetary gear center differential to split engine torque, electrically lockable via a button on the console that would have activated a Viscous Coupling unit.

Before 1990:
- Normal torque split 50/50
- 185/60R14 performance tires on 5.5J-14 alloy wheels

From 1990:
- Normal torque split of 43/57 (for a rear-wheel-drive feel) could be varied to 60/40
-195 / 60R-14 performance tires

Reply to Zilesio
February 21, 2009 - 19:05
Re: Mazda 323 GT Turbo 4WD

Yep, thanks for the info. Mazda 6 MPS is coming soon too.

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