Torque-Vectoring system. Data provided by different sensors (which monitor wheel speed, steering angle,throttle position, yaw rate) are analized by the 4WD controller, which is able to understand how to split the torque between four wheels.
There isn't a central differential, torque is sent to the rear axle using a shaft linked to front differential. The rear differential is replaced by two clutches which (if necessary) split the torque sent to the rear axle between the two wheels.
Torque-Vectoring system automatically adds torque to the outside rear wheel in corners to make the car turn quicker.
Figure: 2010 nissan juke det fe 8231215 600 (77KB)
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Nissan All-Mode 4x4 system - very similar to Xtrail.
Normally AUTO mode what can be switched to Locked mode. During Auto mode front wheel drive vehicle where rear axle engages when front wheels start to slip, power is variably distributed from 100:0 to 50:50 front to rear.
In LOCK mode the transfer clutch is permanently locked - power distribution 50:50. If vehicle speed increases, the vehicle automatically goes to AUTO mode, then, when speed decreases, it switches back to LOCK. When transfer clutch oil is overheated, the vehicle goes into 2WD mode.
Has electric clutch to connect rear axle. Single wheel spinning on axles is controlled via wheel brakes - known as electronic limited slip differential.
Figure: Murano rear axle (59KB)
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The Mk 1 has a multi-plate clutch that can send up to 50% torque to the rear axle and may be activated at any time. Features a "central differential lock", meaning 50% of torque is permanently sent to the rear axle (actually up to 40km/h, provided the oil in the multiplate clutch is not overheated in which case it switches back to 2WD mode).
The 4WD system also features a ELD - electronic limited slip differential on both front and rear axles. It does not actual lock anything, but uses brakes on free spinning wheels to emulate a limited slip differential. Works OK in snow and mud, but can not be compared to true lockers.
On the subject of true LSDs and lockers, the Qashqai can not be equipped with any aftermaket front or rear differentials, at least not officially, although it must be said the Dacia Duster features the same drive train as the Qashqai, and can be equipped with true LSDs and aftermarket torsen differentials.
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Pathfinder I (Terrano I, Terramax) WD21 1985-1995
WD21 Pathfinders were available in both 2WD and manually engaged 4WD (Part-time all wheel drive) configurations. LSD rear - optional, 2,02:1 low gear.
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Pathfinder II (Terrano II, Infiniti QX4) R50 1996–2004
All Mode selectable all wheel drive system - normally rear wheel drive, in AUTO mode front axle engages when rear wheels start to slip, power is variably distributed from 0:100 to 50:50 front to rear. In AUTO mode the system works as an automatic all wheel drive system. In 2WD mode, the clutch is unlocked permanently. In 4H mode the tranfer clutch is permanently locked - power distribution 50:50.
Figure: All Mode all wheel drive system modes and scheme. (61KB)
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Seems to be like an X-Trail normally front wheel drive vehicle(?).
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Pathfinder IV Hybrid 2014-discontinued (except Australia and New Zealand)
Pathfinder Hybrid available in 2-wheel drive and 4-wheel drive configurations, uses a gasoline engine and an electric motor paired to a compact lithium-ion battery. The Pathfinder Hybrid also have hybrid emblems and hybrid LED taillights versus the non-hybrid model. The hybrid system uses a Nissan Intelligent Dual Clutch System (one motor / two clutch parallel system) that manages power from both the electric motor and the gas engine. The 15 kW (20 hp) electric motor and gas engine work in tandem to provide performance similar to the non-hybrid Pathfinder's 3.5-liter gasoline V6.
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Patrol 160, GR Y60 ...-1998, Y61 1998-..., PickUp 1998-...
Mechanical rear wheel drive with a clutch to transfer power to the front differential. Torque-vectoring rear differential.
"The clever electronic control system is fed by all the information ... such as G-force, boost pressure, throttle position etc, in addition, the speed of individual wheels measured by ABS wheel speed sensors. By these information, the computer knows whether the car is running out of cornering limit or not. If not yet, the multi-plate clutches won't intervene, thus the car can power slide through the corner smoothly. In case out of limit, the multi-plate clutch will engage and send torque to front wheels, increasing traction."
All Mode selectable all wheel drive system - normally front wheel drive vehicle, in AUTO mode rear axle engages when front wheels start to slip, power is variably distributed from 100:0 to 50:50 front to rear. In AUTO mode the system works as an automatic all wheel drive system.
In 2WD mode, the clutch is unlocked permanently. However, even when in 2WD mode, rear wheels can sometimes be engaged by electronic control unit, for example under heavy acceleration.
In LOCK mode the tranfer clutch is permanently locked - power distribution 50:50. If vehicle speed increases, the vehicle automatically goes to AUTO mode, then, when speed decreases, it switches back to LOCK. When transfer clutch oil is overheated, the vehicle goes into 2WD mode.
Figure: Nissan X-Trail All Mode 4wd system description (134KB)
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Last changed: 2021/01/01 00:00
1-15 of 24 Comments
January 26, 2019 - 02:36
Qashqai Mk 1 also has EDL - "electronic differential lock" on front and rear axis. Uses brakes to emulate a limited slip differential. No actual locker can be had ofr the Qashqai, although the Daci Duster ones will probably fit as it has the same drive train.
July 21, 2016 - 02:17
can i pull the fuse for the all wheel drive an use just the rear wheel.
Reply to george brooks225
April 08, 2020 - 02:21
No. It is normally front wheel drive.
March 31, 2016 - 17:55
Hey what about one of the most capably vehicles from the show rooms floor. The Nissan Xterra... Are they not sold in your part of the world?
February 04, 2016 - 12:07
I have AMurano V6 and I have recently got this, badly stuck in mud I landed up having both front and rear wheels on the left spinning and no drive whatsoever went to the other side I feel that there's something very wrong with the four-wheel-drive system please can you help I live in Kenya and the roads are very bad out here please reply
August 06, 2015 - 10:05
I installed an amp meter between the 4wd controller and the clutch solenoid.
Here is a video, how it works in Auto in city driving www.youtube.com
The system is proactive in Auto, as you can see in the video. and in the 2WD the clutch engages when the acc pedal is over 50% and the calculated engine load is over 75% the prevent wheel spin.
I have tried take off on gravel in Auto, like at 2500rpm, it automaticly locks to 75% and when wheel spin is detected, then it goes to 100%.
It may not be as hitech as the haldex, but it is simpler and more reliable
July 31, 2015 - 16:22
Anyone have any information about the Nissan Terrano, I have searched a lot online and have not been able to figure out if the 1996 R3mR is full time or part time AWD, there is one model with an electronic switch that looks like full time but there is also one with a separate gear shifter for the 4WD system that I think may only be part time.
May 13, 2015 - 02:02
How can I make my X-Trail (2003) Ti a better 4wd than now, what are the upgrades and costs involved (love this car, had it for 7+ yrs, no trble at all).
Thanks awdwiki learned a lot from u guys.
August 12, 2014 - 13:36
Test drove an 07 X-Trail (T31) the other day.. have to say i was not impressed by the 4x4. The problem for me is that i have a steep private gravel road with 3 sharp corners up to my house. Since the X-trail has no differential the 4wd generates a lot of wheelspin in the corners.. also tried a Skoda Yeti and Octavia (Haldex 4 and 5) up the same road with no wheelspin or problems whatsoever driving up..
Nissans all-mode 4wd system is listed under "part-time" awd and not multiplate clutch like someone said bellow..
Reply to Ola
April 08, 2020 - 02:35
Well a clutch operated AWD is in fact a part time AWD.
Also most modern AWDs need the driver to stay on the throttle and the EDL will figure out which wheel to brake in order to transfer torque to non slipping wheels. It is kinda the opposite real off-roaders (like rock crawlers) do. The risk is breaking something, especially considering the underpinnings are not as robust as in a real off-roaders.
But for mud and snow the system works rather well and it is not really meant for anything else.
Surprised you had issues on gravel, as I occasionally climb a gravel road most people claim can only be climbed by real off-roaders. Maybe the additional weight of the X-trail or perhaps the tires were a limiting factor. Go figure.
February 25, 2013 - 20:56
Is on Xtrail and QashQai haldex or torsen or something else?
Reply to vuli
February 25, 2013 - 23:51
A multiplate clutch, similar to Haldex, but on Xtrail 4x2 and 4x4 modes can be forced by using a button.
Reply to vuli
February 25, 2013 - 23:56
A multiplate clutch, similar to Haldex, but 4x2 and 4x4 modes can be forced by using a rotating knob.
February 04, 2013 - 14:55
I have a nissan x trail and to be honist i think its a joke as a 4x4. The the snow that has just come and gone i struggled big time in this. The thing is i got the car stuck up my drive and put the car into 4x4 lock mode, this did nothing the 4x4 system does not seem to be working can someone send me an email with help as what to do or am i doing something wrong?.
Reply to Darren
July 20, 2013 - 10:31
Hi, I think it really depends on tires too, no matter how good any system is if you run summer tires or worn tires you still won't grip, personally I have always used general grabbers, road(uhp) and now all terrains, makes a world of difference to the vehicle