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Figure: GTR R35 (113KB)
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Juke 1.6 4WDNext
Torque-Vectoring system. Data provided by different sensors (which monitor wheel speed, steering angle,throttle position, yaw rate) are analized by the 4WD controller, which is able to understand how to split the torque between four wheels.
There isn't a central differential, torque is sent to the rear axle using a shaft linked to front differential. The rear differential is replaced by two clutches which (if necessary) split the torque sent to the rear axle between the two wheels.
Torque-Vectoring system automatically adds torque to the outside rear wheel in corners to make the car turn quicker.
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Nissan All-Mode 4x4 system - very similar to Xtrail.
Normally AUTO mode what can be switched to Locked mode. During Auto mode front wheel drive vehicle where rear axle engages when front wheels start to slip, power is variably distributed from 100:0 to 50:50 front to rear.
In LOCK mode the transfer clutch is permanently locked - power distribution 50:50. If vehicle speed increases, the vehicle automatically goes to AUTO mode, then, when speed decreases, it switches back to LOCK. When transfer clutch oil is overheated, the vehicle goes into 2WD mode.
Has electric clutch to connect rear axle. Single wheel spinning on axles is controlled via wheel brakes - known as electronic limited slip differential.
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Qashqai I (2007-2013)Next
Same as X-Trail I
The Mk 1 has a multi-plate clutch that can send up to 50% torque to the rear axle and may be activated at any time. Features a "central differential lock", meaning 50% of torque is permanently sent to the rear axle (actually up to 40km/h, provided the oil in the multiplate clutch is not overheated in which case it switches back to 2WD mode).
The 4WD system also features a ELD - electronic limited slip differential on both front and rear axles. It does not actual lock anything, but uses brakes on free spinning wheels to emulate a limited slip differential. Works OK in snow and mud, but can not be compared to true lockers.
On the subject of true LSDs and lockers, the Qashqai can not be equipped with any aftermaket front or rear differentials, at least not officially, although it must be said the Dacia Duster features the same drive train as the Qashqai, and can be equipped with true LSDs and aftermarket torsen differentials.
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Pathfinder I (Terrano I, Terramax) WD21 1985-1995Next
WD21 Pathfinders were available in both 2WD and manually engaged 4WD (Part-time all wheel drive) configurations. LSD rear - optional, 2,02:1 low gear.
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Pathfinder II (Terrano II, Infiniti QX4) R50 1996–2004Next
Part-time all wheel drive. LSD rear - optional, 2,02:1 low gear.
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Pathfinder III (Terrano III) R51 2005-2012Next
All Mode selectable all wheel drive system - normally rear wheel drive, in AUTO mode front axle engages when rear wheels start to slip, power is variably distributed from 0:100 to 50:50 front to rear. In AUTO mode the system works as an automatic all wheel drive system. In 2WD mode, the clutch is unlocked permanently. In 4H mode the tranfer clutch is permanently locked - power distribution 50:50.
Figure: All Mode all wheel drive system modes and scheme. (61KB)
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